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Abstract Several technologies [...]by
Several technologies to measure lip pressure during brass instrument playing have already been developed as prototypes. This paper presents many technological improvements of previous methods and its optimization to use this technique as " easy to handle " tool in the classroom. It also offers new options for performance science studies gathering many intra-and inter-individual variabilities of playing parameters. Improvements include a wireless sensor setup to measure lip pressure in trumpet and cornet playing and to capture the orientation and motion of the instrument. Lightweight design and simple fixation allow to perform with a minimum of alteration of the playing conditions. Wireless connectivity to mobile devices is introduced for specific data logging. The app includes features like data recording, visualization, real-time feedback and server connectivity or other data sharing possibilities. Furthermore, a calibration method for the sensor setup is developed and the results showed measurement accuracy of less than 5 % deviation and measurement range from 0.6 N up to a peak load to 70 N. A pilot study with 9 participants (beginners, advanced students and a professional player) confirmed practical usage. The integration of these real-time data visualizations into daily teaching and practicing could be just the next small step. Lip pressure forces are not only extremely critical for the upper register of the brass instruments, they are in general crucial for all brass instruments, especially playing in upper registers. Small changes of the fitting permit the use of the sensor for all brass instruments.