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4. Upper register this refers to the higher notes. The high register may be considered to be top G (at the top of the stave) upwards. Notes from high E  (3 rd leger line) upwards are considered to be in the extreme high register. Venturi an alternative name for the throat of the mouthpiece. (See fig 1 page 55) also see drill sizes Appendix 7 Vibrato this refers to the slight waving of pitch of a note. The extent to which the pitch wavers is determined by the player, usually this is a matter of personal choice (Harry James for example was noted for his distinct vibrato) 276

1. Appendix 2 Glossary Working Definitions of terms used in connection with the trumpet Added notes when a basic chord such as C major (CEG) receives other notes such as the seventh, the ninth, the eleventh, the thirteenth, then these are referred to as ‘added notes’. Backbore the interior shape of the mouthpiece from the end of the throat to the end of the mouthpiece shank. (See fig 1 page 55 and fig 9 page 59) Bore when applied to mouthpieces this refers to the diameter of the throat and is most commonly measured in American drill sizes between 20 and 30. When applied to trumpets this refers to diameter of the tubing of the instrument. (See fig.1 page 55) ‘Bottoming-Out’ many players experience this, especially when using extra shallow mouthpieces. What actually happens in the majority of cases is that the swollen lip is forced into the mouthpiece cup and thus comes into contact not with the bottom of the cup but with the sides of the cup just under the rim. This has the effect of restricting the vibration. Most often it causes the sound to cease. This is a very frustrating condition for any trumpet player, especially one who does not understand why it occurs. Bright this is a description often applied to trumpet tone. It is also used to describe an instrument that sounds high in pitch (sharp) Brilliant used in the description of trumpet tone rather than referring to a player’s ability. Chorus once through the entire chord sequence of the tune. Often this is 24 or 32 bars in length. Clarino refers to the highest part in the trumpet ensemble and the high parts of the natural trumpet. It does not relate to a specific instrument but to the range of the trumpet. Cup an interior part of the mouthpiece between the rim and the throat (see page 55 fig.1. and figs 3 – 8 page 57) Darker used in the description of tone as an opposite of bright and brilliant. A lead player would not usually have a dark sound. Deep refers to cup depth. Used to describe the range of mouthpieces that are considered to be in the category of deep mouthpieces. Double Octave this refers to notes written and/or played in the extreme upper register of the trumpet i.e. notes written between top C and double top C. Doubling this has two meanings (i) a player may be required to play saxophone and flute during a specific piece or concert. This is referred to as doubling. (ii) there are a certain number of notes within a chord. If the chord has four notes (e.g. C major 7 CEGB) and there are five players then two players may be 273

3. Lip-down / Lip Up this refers to the practice of relaxing the muscles in the embouchure (lipping–down) or tightening the muscles (lipping-up) in order to adjust the tuning of a note. Lipping- down flattens the pitch of the note and lipping-up sharpens the pitch of the note. Medium refers to those mouthpieces that are considered medium in dimensions. Examples are Vincent Bach 5c-7c Open used to describe the backbore shape of a mouthpiece. An open backbore creates lessened resistance for the player and is therefore opposite to a tight backbore (see fig 9 page 58) Open-up usually refers to the effect created when the throat of a mouthpiece is increased by pushing a drill (of a size slightly bigger than the throat) through the throat. Outer bite the outer most edge of the rim. As with the inner rim the outer rim can be given a rounded edge or sharper edge depending on the preference of the player (see fig 2 page 56) Resistance the pressure that is felt by the player from within the mouthpiece and trumpet. Resonance curve resonance is rapid and uncontrolled increase in the size of a vibration when the vibrating object is subject to a force varying in its natural frequency. (Hutchinson Dictionary 1993:137) A resonance curve therefore plots the frequencies that resonance occurs and the magnitude of the resonance. Rim the part of the mouthpiece that comes into contacts with the player’s lips (see fig 2 page 56) Shakes similar to a trill but more aggressively executed this requires the player to alternate very quickly between two notes. Usually this device is applied to the notes in the high register e.g. G to A, C to D. Some players such as Maynard Ferguson do the shake over a larger interval. Shallow a general term used to describe the depth of the mouthpiece cup (see fig 3 page 57) Shank the tapered outer part of the mouthpiece that fits into the leader pipe. See fig.34 page 84) Shoulder the interior angle of the mouthpiece formed where cup and throat meet (see figs 10, 11 page 59) Sizzle a description given to a player’s tone. Commonly used by trumpet players but seems to be rarely used by others. Slurs the technique of moving smoothly from one note to another and thereby eliminating any gap between the notes. Thin a description given to a player’s tone. The opposite of a thin tone is a fat tone. Throat the small opening at the end of the cup that allows the air or vibrations to pass into the trumpet. The size of the throat is most commonly measured in American drill sizes varying in all but extreme cases from 20 to 30 (see fig 1 page 55) also see drill sizes Appendix 7 Tight used in the description of the backbore of a mouthpiece. A tight backbore being one where the bore is purposely made small therefore increasing the resistance felt by the player. 275

2. asked to play the same note, either in unison or an octave apart. This is referred to as doubling. Edgy (i) used in the description of a player’s tone or (ii) used in the playing characteristics that a mouthpiece may be designed to produce. An edgy sound is one that can cut through the ensemble sound. Embouchure from the French term emboucher meaning “to put in one’s mouth” and the Latin bucca – “puffed out cheeks”. A term used to describe the manner in which a wind player forms his/her mouth and lips in order to produce a variety of sounds. A complicated series of muscles around the lips are brought into play in the formation of an embouchure. Fat used to describe trumpet sound. The opposite to a fat sound would be a thin sound. These terms tend to be used most commonly by trumpeters and musicians rather than by non- players. Feel the sensations that the mouthpiece (and instrument) gives to the player. It can refer to the mouthpiece rim touching the lips of the player, or the pressure of air exerted on the player from within the mouthpiece and the instrument. Flexibility used in relation to the technique of moving around the various registers of the instrument: from low notes to high notes to mid range etc. A player who can move quickly and smoothly to all notes on the instruments could be described as having good flexibility. Flutter-tongueing this effect is created by the playing moving the tongue up and down very quickly against the roof or the mouth or behind the top teeth whilst playing a note. A ‘raspy’ sound is produced. Gap the distance between the end of the mouthpiece shank and the mouthpiece receiver (see fig 35 page 84) Glissando the action of musically sliding from one note to another without interrupting the sound. The glissando may go upwards or downwards Hanging-On the practice of holding on to a note, usually a very high note, at the end of a phrase or end of a piece. It seems to be something that lead trumpet players tend to do whilst holding a very high note. They hang on presumably to be heard and noticed. High point the upper most point in the profile of a trumpet mouthpiece rim. (See figs 24, 25, 26 page 67) The first point of contact between the mouthpiece and the players lips. Inner bite the point where the rim and the cup meet (see fig. 2 page 56). The severity of the angle can be altered to produce a rounded edge or a sharper edge depending on the preference of the player. Large refers to mouthpieces whose dimensions are considered to be above average. Examples of large mouthpieces are Vincent Bach 1½C, Leadpipe the part of the trumpet into which the mouthpiece fits (see fig 34 page 84) 274

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